Brain tumor in kids

Brain Tumor in Kids : Explanation, Cause, Diagnosis

Brain tumor in kids

Brain tumor in kids. Brain tumors can be classified into two types, namely primary brain tumor and secondary brain tumor. A primary brain tumor is a tumor that develops in the brain, whereas a secondary brain tumor is a brain tumor that starts with the rest of the body and spreads to the brain.

Secondary brain tumors are always malignant and fatal. Primary brain tumors can be divided into two kinds based on its nature, namely malignant and benign. Malignant tumors are tumors that contain cancer cells, which divide and grow rapidly and invade surrounding healthy tissues. Ultimately, malignant tumors will damage, even destroy, normal cells and disrupt the function of these cells. Malignant tumors can threaten the lives of patients.

Brain tumor in kids

Brain tumor in kids

On the other hand, benign tumors are more benign than malignant tumors. These benign tumors can live with normal cells. However, sometimes these types of tumors can cause neurological or neurological disorders, such as convulsions, changes in properties and memory loss, and can also interfere with vital brain function. Therefore, some benign brain tumors can also be harmful to the patient’s life.


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Brain tumors can appear at any age. Brain tumors in kids have different properties of brain tumors in adults, both in terms of cell type and the effect of treatment. Most brain tumors rarely appear in the first year of the child, but certain types of tumors usually appear at a certain age. Some types of Brain tumors in kids include astrocytomas, brainstem gliomas, ependymomas, and medulloblastomas.

Astrocytomas are usually noncancerous or non-malignant and contain slowly growing cysts. Usually, this brain tumor develops in children aged 5 to 8 years.

Brainstem glioma is a brain tumor that only appears in children. The average age at which the tumor develops is at the age of 6 years. These tumors can grow to become very large before causing symptoms.

Ependymomas account for 8-10% of children’s brain tumors. This type of tumor is found in very small tracts (ventricles) in the brain and closes cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cerebrospinal fluid flow.

The most common brain tumor found in children is medulloblastoma. This brain tumor is more common in boys than girls, usually at the age of 5 years. In general, medulloblastoma appears before the age of 10 years.

Generally, brain tumors contain abnormalities in genes associated with cell cycle control, resulting in uncontrolled cell growth. This abnormality is caused by changes that occur within the gene, or by the preparation of chromosomes that can alter gene function.

Children who receive radiation therapy in the head as part of treatment for other diseases also have a higher risk factor for the formation of new brain tumors.

External factors, such as the use of cell phones, the occurrence of brain injury, or the influence of certain chemicals or magnetic fields are still in the research stage. Until now, there is still no close relationship between these risk factors and brain tumors, but further research is still needed.


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The intensity of symptoms of a Brain tumor in kids in each individual depends on the location of the tumor specifically, the type of tumor, and also the size of the tumor. Nausea, numbness in the limbs, and convulsions are the main symptoms of brain tumor.

In addition, the headache experienced by a Brain tumor in kids is very strong and usually occurs in the morning. The sufferers usually have difficulty in overcoming the headache with ordinary headache medication.

Convulsions occur due to fluid flow changes in the brain. Patients with brain tumors sometimes experience medical problems such as memory loss, speech impediment, confusion, and others. In general, patients have difficulty to concentrate because of the presence of tumors in the brain. In addition, changes in personality or personality can also occur in patients with brain tumors.

The brain tumor in kids is diagnosed using advanced computer technology that can describe the brain in various ways. There are various methods of examining the presence of brain tumors, including neurologic exam, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and CT scan.

In neurological tests, the doctor will check vision, hearing, alertness, muscle strength, coordination, and reflex movements.

Brain tumor in kids


MRI is a large machine with a strong magnetic field and connected to the computer to create a detailed picture of the area inside the head. Sometimes, a special dye is inserted into the blood vessels of the arm or hand to help show the difference in brain tissue. The resulting picture may indicate an abnormal area, such as a tumor.

The CT scan uses an X-ray machine that is also connected to the computer to get detailed images of the patient’s head. In this test can also be injected a special dye so that abnormal areas can be more easily visible.

In certain cases, the doctor will suggest that the patient take another test, such as an angiogram test, spinal tap, and biopsy (biopsy). In the angiogram test, the dyestuff is injected into the bloodstream that makes the blood vessels become visible in the X-ray image. If there is a tumor, X-ray results will show tumors or blood vessels that provide nutrients to the tumor.

In a spinal tap test, the doctor will take a sample of cerebrospinal fluid (a fluid that fills the space in the brain). The fluid taken will be tested in the laboratory for examination of the presence of cancer cells or other signs of abnormality.

Taking tissue to look for the presence of tumor cells is called a biopsy. An expert will see these cells under a microscope to check for the presence of abnormal cells.

Biopsy tests can see cancer, tissue changes that can become cancerous, and other conditions. A biopsy test is the only way that can diagnose brain tumors with certainty, help to know the severity of the brain, and plan for treatment.

If after diagnosis is found Brain tumor in kids, there are several methods of treatment or treatment. Initial treatment can increase the chances of getting good results.


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However, treatment depends on the size and type of tumor, as well as the overall health of the child. The following methods are the treatment of certain tumor types, namely:

  1. Astrocytoma is by surgery
  2. Brainstem glioma with radiation and chemotherapy to shrink tumor size and extend the lifespan, because for this type of tumor the surgical method cannot be performed.
  3. Ependymoma with a combination of surgery, radiation therapy
  4. Chemotherapy
  5. Medulloblastoma with chemotherapy and radiation, and also with a combination of surgical treatment.

The method of surgery is generally required for almost all major brain tumor types. Some tumors can be thoroughly cleaned. However, tumors within the tissues can only be reduced, because they can not be taken or thoroughly cleaned.

In cases where the tumor can be cleaned, the surgical method can reduce the pressure and relieve the symptoms. Radiation and chemotherapy methods can be used for certain types of tumors.

In addition to these methods, other treatments can also be used to treat primary Brain tumors in kids. The treatment may use corticosteroid medications, such as dexamethasone, to reduce brain swelling, diuretics (urea or mannitol) to reduce swelling and pressure, anticonvulsants (phenytoin or levetiracetam) to reduce seizures, and medications to treat pain.

The brain tumor in kids is a very dangerous disease and can be fatal. According to experts from NCBI, three out of four children can survive after being diagnosed with a brain tumor. Therefore, it is important for parents to recognize the symptoms of the Brain tumor in kids early on so they can be treated promptly so that complications or side effects of the disease, such as damage to the nervous system, can be prevented.


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