Signs of Child Diabetes: 15 Symptoms of Diabetes in Children and How to Overcome Them
Signs of child diabetes. Diabetes is increasingly prevalent in the present. When diabetes was known only as a hereditary disease, today many people who suffer from diabetes that does not even have the hereditary factors. A person is said to suffer from diabetes if his body can not produce insulin normally.
Insulin is the hormone needed to process glucose in the body into energy. If the amount of insulin hormone in the body is not sufficient, blood sugar levels in the body will be very high. If in the old day’s diabetes was a rare occurrence among children and more diagnosed at age thirty and older, it is now of concern that there are now many children with diabetes and the number is increasing.
Causes Of Diabetes In Child
Various factors can be the cause of diabetes in Child, namely:
- Hereditary factors are family history of diabetes
- High levels of sugar in foods and beverages commonly consumed by children.
- Overweight or acute weight (obesity)
- Poor diet
- Less intake of vegetables and fruits, and eat more high-sugar instant foods
- Less moving or active activity, so it is not balanced with food intake.
Detecting Signs of Child Diabetes
Most diabetic diseases in children, especially type 2, do not have specific signs that can be detected. In general, a child will be diagnosed with diabetes when reaching the age of 7 years and over with some symptoms that appear like vomiting, frequent bowel movements, decreased consciousness even coma, severe dehydration and so forth. Often these symptoms are mistaken for severe diarrhea. But there is one difference, which can indicate that children suffer from diabetes is the child’s breath that smells of acetone or acid smell.
Signs of Child Diabetes
In principle, the typically identifiable Type 1 diabetes in children is observed by clinical symptoms of 3P and when blood sugar levels reach 200mg / dl from that should only range from 70-100 mg/dl:
- Polifagi is a condition where children often eat because he experienced hunger repeatedly. This hunger is caused by the insufficient amount of insulin in the body so that sugar cannot be processed into energy. As a result, the body organs will experience fatigue and trigger a continuous hunger.
- Polidipsi, Polidipsi or a lot of drinking occurs because the body lacks fluid due to lack of production of insulin that makes excess sugar in the bloodstream, so that body fluid will be drawn to other body tissues. The process will make the child often thirsty and drink a lot, more than usual.
- Polyuria, That is the condition where the child is very frequent urination because of a lot of drinking, exceeds the usual frequency of urination.
- Easy fatigue and lethargy because the cells are minimal sugar intake
- Wounds that are hard to heal
- Blurred vision of a child
- Frequent tingling
- Losing weight despite eating a lot
- Fungal infections especially in girls
- Behavior that changes, the child is irritable and emotionally unstable
- And special symptoms in children over 3-4 years ie bed wetting
- Vomiting and abdominal pain
- The breath smells sour
- Stomach ache
- Not focused or hard to concentrate
Diagnosis of Diabetes In Children
When a child has been diagnosed with diabetes, usually one of the determining factors of diagnosis is fasting blood sugar or not getting a caloric intake for about eight to ten hours is 100 mg/dl, or above the normal threshold. While the amount of blood sugar when or after not fasting is 140 mg/dl. For children diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, mandatory hemoglobin or HbAc1 examination should be performed every three months. The results of a good hemoglobin test are below 8% the same as normal children. If above 8% there will be a danger of complications.
People with type 1 diabetes should get insulin therapy that can be done in several stages. First, by giving fluids to restore the balance of acids and bases in the body, electrolytes and also the administration of insulin. The second stage is the transition phase that aims to overcome the factors of the originator of diabetes, normalization of insulin levels, diet preparation, and also education in the elderly. The third and final phase is the goal to maintain the child’s metabolic status within normal limits. Everything is tailored to the habits and what is needed by the child’s body. For people with type 2 diabetes, treatment will depend on how far the disease has progressed. In the very early phase, it is likely to be overcome by changes in lifestyle that are more appropriate for the disease.
Complications of Diabetes In Children
Children with diabetes may experience a variety of acute and chronic complications if not treated properly. Kinds of complications that can be suffered by children are:
- Acute complications
Included in the acute complications are:
- Hyperglycemia, a condition in which the disease has not been treated so that blood sugar levels in the body are very high and can cause children always hungry, frequent urination, dehydration, seizures, weakness, decreased consciousness can even result in sudden death. Hyperglycaemia can occur in children whose diabetes has not been detected.
- Hypoglycemia is a condition that occurs because blood sugar levels in the child’s body decreased. Can also be due to excessive use of insulin, less or too late to eat, too tired so that energy drained. The result can be emotional attitudes in children, tired, cold sweats, fainting, permanent brain cell damage that will interfere with the growth process.
- Ketoacidosis is a condition when blood sugar levels rise uncontrollably to form a by-product called ketone in a child’s body. Ketones will cause the blood to become acidic and to poison the brain so that the patient’s consciousness disappears. Symptoms of a child who has ketoacidosis are the presence of ketones in the urine, easily drowsy, acidic breath or smell of acetone, and shortness of breath. If not treated immediately, these complications will lead to a coma and even death.
- Chronic Complications
Chronic complications experienced by children with diabetes will occur in the long term, can be a major blood vessel disorders in the brain and heart, as well as small blood vessel abnormalities in the eyes, kidneys and nerve fibers. Usually after adolescence can occur complications such as coronary heart disease, kidney failure, blindness and also the risk of death at a young age.
- Heart disease
Children with type 1 diabetes who have excess body weight will have a risk for heart disease if not treated early. Although children without diabetes who are overweight can also have the same risk, in children with type 1 diabetes the risk will be greater.
Usually, this eye disease occurs in the elderly, but complications in children with diabetes can also occur. In children, it is called a cataract blizzard because the appearance when viewed through the ophthalmoscope will look like snow. Cataracts in children can be eliminated, but the child’s vision will not be able to return as before. Not only cataracts, but various eye disorders such as glaucoma and others can also occur.
Known also with fungal infections, the disease usually attacks the genital area because high blood sugar levels in the urine cause the growth of fungi in the area. Usually, this disease is treated with a special ointment for the fungus. The infection will stop if the blood sugar can be controlled.
- Kidney failure
Control of blood sugar that is less than the maximum will cause a large amount of glucose in the bladder that can cause infection in the bladder to the kidney. To find out whether there is an infection or not, children with diabetes should have a test to see if there is albumin in their urine.
The condition of severe hypoglycemia can be experienced by children so that loss of consciousness for hours and if the condition is experienced repeatedly then the child can be at risk of epilepsy.
- Hair loss
Children with diabetes may experience hair loss due to symptoms of ketoacidosis and thyroid hormone deficiency. Symptoms of thyroid hormone deficiency usually include weight gain, mental retardation, and the body can not stay warm.
There are two states of loss of consciousness or coma that can occur in children with diabetes, namely insulin coma where this situation occurs when children experience hypoglycemia in an extreme and repetitive. While the diabetic coma is if the child has hyperglycemia in extreme and repetitive.
What can parents do?
The role of parents in helping control the disease of childhood diabetes is of course very large. Many important things parents have to do to make sure the child’s illness is well under control. Parents can do the following:
- Keeping your child’s blood sugar level steady, neither rising nor falling. Parents should understand that children with diabetes have strict dietary restrictions and the child’s activity level should be closely monitored.
- Over time, diabetes can be a chronic disease. Patients and families should seek the support they need.
- Parents should also be observant and can recognize signs or symptoms of low blood sugar or ketoacidosis, and also must know what to do when these symptoms appear.
- Teach children to be able to control or monitor their own blood sugar levels and also how to handle their insulin injections if the child is older.
- Make sure others know if the child has diabetes, so they can also give first aid to the child if symptoms of complications attack. For example, a teacher at a child’s school, another family, and a parent can also provide a kind of mark to be carried by a child who shows his illness.
- Perform routine health checks to control blood sugar levels of children.
- Help the child to maintain a healthy weight and not to be obese
Foods that Need to be Consumed
For a child with diabetes, maintaining weight is important so that he does not experience complications from the disease. Diabetic patients can eat exactly the same foods as healthy people but should avoid foods containing lots of sugar. Increasing fibrous and nutritious mannequins such as fruits and vegetables is a good diet for diabetic children. If you can, the whole family should also follow this diet to better motivate the child in managing the disease. The amount of food a child can eat can be determined by the parent and child nutritionist.
Although there is actually no specific restriction on the type of food that is safe to eat by children with diabetes, but still the fact that children with diabetes should avoid sweet foods that can worsen his condition. But if you do not know what foods are right for the child, then the child may show signs of malnourished children. Some foods that are recommended for children with diabetes and healthy foods for child growth are:
- Foods made from whole grains and contain complex carbohydrates such as brown rice, baked potatoes, whole wheat bread, oatmeal, and more.
- The safest non-fat meat is steamed, boiled or roasted.
- Green vegetables are safest boiled or steamed.
- Processed products that are low in fat, milk, and eggs.
- Tuna, salmon, sardines, and mackerel.
Foods to Avoid
This type of food to avoid is the main cause is because they are a source of sugar derived from carbohydrates. The following are those who have diabetes:
- White rice
- Foods made from flour, many spiced vegetables such as butter, salt, flavor, and others
- Canned fruits and vegetables contain lots of sugar and high salt
- Fatty meats and high-fat dairy products
- Heart, and all other animal innards
- White white bread
- Chicken skin
- Fried foods, such as chicken, fried banana, fast food, and others.
Activities For Children Diabetes
Exercise is one of the biggest factors that can control type 2 diabetes and is very important for children with diabetes. Children who have diabetes are recommended to exercise every day. However, care should be taken if the physical activity of a child can lower blood sugar levels. The solution, when being physically active children need to bring sweet foods just in case. In addition, children should be able to measure their own physical endurance limits. Parents also need to keep an eye on how many children can move. If necessary, parents can communicate this with the child’s teacher at school to supervise as long as the child is in school.
No need to panic if found out that your child suffering from diabetes. Currently, medical science is increasingly sophisticated so that children who have diabetes can get all the support it needs to live a normal and healthy life, as well as active like other children. If a child with diabetes is treated appropriately then there is no reason to worry about the condition.
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