types of thyroid cancer

4 Types of Thyroid Cancer That Need to be Known

Types of thyroid cancer. Thyroid cancer is a malignancy of the thyroid. This type of cancer rarely leads to enlarged glands, but often leads to a small growth (nodule) in the gland.

most thyroid nodules are benign and usually, thyroid cancer can be cured. Thyroid cancer often limits the ability to absorb iodine and limits the ability to produce thyroid hormones, but sometimes cancer can produce many thyroid hormones to cause hyperthyroidism.

types of thyroid cancer


There are 4 types of thyroid cancer, namely papillary, follicular, anaplastic and medullary. Higher risk occurs at the age of 25-65 years. But in patients under the age of 20 and over 50 years, the risk of malignancy is higher.

Children under 20 years have a double risk of malignancy. In women 3 – 4 times more often, but when men are infected, the risk of malignancy is higher.


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Approximately 50 – 71.4% of thyroid cancers are a type of papillary more commonly 2-3 times in young women (aged under 40 years), late in childhood or early adult life.

But in old age, this cancer grows faster and spreads. These tumors grow slowly, are chronic and mainly spread to the lymph nodes.

Thyroid nodules will turn violent when:

  1. There is only one
  2. Fast growth
  3. The nodule is hard
  4. Nodules are solid and their contents are not liquid (cystic) ‘
  5. The thyroid screen indicates that the nodule is not working

Types of thyroid cancer

There are 4 types of cancer in the thyroid, namely:

  1. Papillary Cancer

This type of cancer is more often experienced by women and young people. Cancer will grow faster and spread in the elderly. In addition, people who had undergone radiation therapy in the neck are also at high risk of papillary cancer.

This cancer can be overcome by surgery involving removal of nearby lymph nodes. Surgery is almost always successful in curing this cancer. Almost all patients with papillary cancer can be cured.

  1. Follicular Cancer

As many as 15 percents of thyroid cancer are follicular cancer. This cancer is more often experienced by women. This cancer can spread through the bloodstream, then the cancer cells spread to various organs of the body.

Treatment action for this cancer is the removal of the thyroid gland and the provision of radioactive iodine to destroy the tissue and cancer cells are left.


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  1. Anaplastic Cancer

Anaplastic cancers can grow very quickly and can result in large lumps in the neck. Most of these cancer patients will die within 1 year.

Provision of anti-cancer drugs and radiation therapy before and after surgery to give satisfactory results.

  1. Medullary Cancer

In medullary cancer, the thyroid gland produces a large amount of calcitonin (a hormone produced by certain thyroid cells). Therefore, this cancer shows unusual symptoms.

Cancer cells can spread through the lymphatic system to the lymph nodes and through the blood to the lungs, liver, and bones. In the syndrome of multiple endocrine neoplasias, medullary cancer may occur along with other endocrine cancers.

This cancer can be derived from family members who suffer from cancer module. If you have a family with a history of thyroid cancer and peripheral goiter should immediately do the examination.

Note also whether there is an enlarged thyroid gland or swelling in the neck. In addition, other symptoms are changes in sounds become hoarse, bleeding cough, constipation, or diarrhea.


Once suspected of having thyroid disorders, patients are advised to undergo a number of checks to ensure the condition and handling.


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First, physical examination, for example, whether there is swelling or a lump in the neck, swallowing, breathing, or hoarse sound.

Second, investigation, which includes laboratory examination to assess Human Thyroglobulin, thyroid cancer marker, and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone level, to assess thyroid function both hyperthyroid and hypothyroid without removing the possibility of malignancy – 80% of thyroid disorders, not thyroid cancer.

On radiology, examination did lung photograph to assess the spread. From ultrasound examination (ultrasound) a detailed anatomical description of the tumor will be obtained, whether it contains liquid, solid or liquid-solid alloy, and possible malignancy.

Cytology Inspection through Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy (FNAB), a number of thyroid tissues are taken and examined by microscope.

The precision for capturing anaplastic, medullary and papillary types is almost 100%. Another option is with a CT scan, PET scan, MRI or NMRI to get a similar picture.


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