What Causes Thyroid Problems? The thyroid gland affects almost all metabolic processes in the human body. Thyroid disorders may range from a deficiency (hypothyroid) as well as an excess (hyperthyroid) of the hormone, both of which provide an enlarged picture of the thyroid gland, known as mumps. Another problem is when the enlargement of the gland is a thyroid cancer.
Although the effects of thyroid hormone disorders can provide discomfort in everyday life, most thyroid problems can be managed properly if diagnosed and treated appropriately.
What causes thyroid problems?
here are the conditions under which excess production of thyroid hormone occurs:
- Graves’ disease: too much thyroid hormone is produced.
- Toxic Adenoma: nodules develop in the thyroid gland and begin to secrete thyroid hormones, disrupt the body’s chemical balance; some goiter may contain some of these nodules.
- Subacute thyroiditis: thyroid inflammation that causes the gland to “leak” the hormone, which causes the circulating hormone in the blood to become excess, usually lasting several weeks, but can also last for months.
- Pituitary gland malfunctions or cancerous growth in the thyroid gland: although rare, hyperthyroidism may also develop due to cancer.
Hypothyroidism, in contrast, comes from the low production of thyroid hormones. Because human energy production requires a certain amount of thyroid hormone, a decrease in hormone production leads to lower energy levels. The causes of hypothyroidism include:
- Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. In this autoimmune disorder, the body attacks the thyroid tissue. The thyroid tissue eventually dies and stops producing hormones.
- Removal of the Thyroid Gland. The thyroid may be cut off or destroyed after surgery or because of certain chemical drugs.
- Overexpression of Iodide. Cardiac drugs amiodarone or certain contrast dyes given before taking X-ray photos to expose the body was able to accumulate iodine in the body. In addition, a person will be more at risk for hypothyroidism if you have a history of thyroid problems in the past.
- Lithium. The lithium drug is used as a mood stabilizer, usually given to bipolar patients. This drug has also been studied as a cause of hypothyroidism.
Long-term untreated hypothyroidism can lead patients to comatose moriedema conditions, rare but potentially fatal conditions and require immediate hormonal treatment.
Hypothyroidism poses a special danger to newborns and infants. The lack of thyroid hormones in the system at an early age may lead to developmental disorders of cretinism (mental retardation) and dwarfism (growth is hampered so that young dwarfs). The hypothyroid baby also has a distinctive physical shape such as a low nose, wide tongue, coarse skin, and all of it can be recognized by the doctor when the baby is born.
If the baby is hypothyroid, treatment should start as soon as possible. In infants, unlike in adults, hypothyroidism can be due to this cause:
- Pituitary disorders (the part of the brain that regulates hormones in the body)
- Damaged thyroid gland
- The baby is too active and calm, has a poor appetite, and sleep time is too long.
Thyroid cancer is very rare and occurs in about 5% of thyroid nodules. One or more thyroid nodules for several years can develop cancer before becoming enlarged and recognized as cancer. People who have previously experienced head and neck radiation therapy in life, such as nasopharyngeal cancer, tend to have a higher risk of developing thyroid cancer.